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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1911 edition. Excerpt: ...the ceiling should be straight, even, free from open joints, crevices and cracks and ready to receive the plastering. Wherever openings are required through the floor they may be made by punching a hole through the blocks; or, if the side-method arch is used, a single block may be omitted. Small holes may afterward be plugged up with mortar and broken pieces of tile. The variations in width of spans between beams is provided for by supplying tiles of different sizes, for both interiors and keys, thereby securing a variety of combinations. A great variety of skew-backs also are provided for fitting different sizes of beams. 429. PROTECTION FROM STAINS, WEATHER, ETC.--The laying of flat construction in winter weather without roof protection should not be practiced in climates where frequent severe rain and snowstorms are followed by hard freezing and thawing, as the mortar joints are liable to be weakened or ruptured, resulting in more or less deflection of the arches. Porous terra-cotta is liable to be utterly ruined if frozen when water-soaked. When it is intended to plaster on the under side of the arches, the architect should see that the smoke and soot from the boiler used for the hoisting engine are not allowed to strike the arches, as they are sure to stain the plaster, and as neither can be removed. For the same reason the architect should see that clean water only is used for mixing the mortar, and that it is not allowed to flow over the arches. Where flat tile arches have been used, many architects have had trouble from stains and efflorescence appearing on the plastered ceilings after the lattei has become dry. Such stains are due to the effects of iron in the clay, or to the cinders in the concrete over the arches when the floors become...